History

The following years were exaggerated anarchic. When Bolivar left for the Great Colombia in in 1826, the country was under the rule of the landowners and the military dictatorship. Peru knew no peace as before in 1845, when Ramón Castilla, a veteran of Ayacucho, seized the presidency.

Throughout his 2 orders (in 1845-in 1851 and in 1855-in 1862), he undertook numerous reforms: abolition of slavery, adoption, in 1860, of a liberal constitution, railway construction. Castilla also began to exploit the guano and nitrate rich deposits.

In in 1864, this operation was the origin of the confrontation that led to a war between Peru and Spain, once the latter took hold of the Chincha islands, rich in guano. Allied to Ecuador, Bolivia and Chile, and Peru emerged victorious treaty in 1879, which ended the hose, was the chance to see for the first time its sovereignty officially recognized by Spain.

Between in 1879 and in 1883, the Pacific War opposed Peru to Chile, regarding the control of the province of Tarapaca, rich in nitrates. Up and amputee part of its territory, ruined by years of war and internal dissension, Peru sought then reordered.
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The reconstruction was slow and was in a large part with the help of foreign capital, under President Augusto Leguia y Salcedo. After his first order (nineteen hundred and eight-in 1912), again took power in 1919, through a military coup to overthrow the government, and exercised an almost dictatorial authority.

In 1924, while he was in power, they asylees Peruvian intellectuals created the American Revolutionary Popular Coalition (APRA), a movement of Marxist tendency, influenced by the Mexican Revolution. APRA, which demanded fundamental reforms against the conservative oligarchy was quickly banned by Leguía, which did not prevent him from becoming an overly influential party.

In the ’30s, despite the adoption of a democratic constitution (in 1933), the APRA was the subject of a bloody oppression and elections that gave victory were canceled. The president then returned to Manuel Prado Ugarteche, who wanted to continue the modernization of the country, but also must have the powerful reformist will, initiated by the APRA.